Elizabeth Van Lew Collection
Scope and Contents
Papers, 1854-1926, collected by John Albree in preparing lectures on Elizabeth Van Lew. Includes letters, notes, newspaper clippings, and photographs. Includes typed copies of her scrapbook. Collection also includes material concerning Jefferson Davis and Civil War letters from North Carolina.
Acc. 2000.54 is microfilm of the collection. Folders 1-10 of the Elizabeth Van Lew Papers are available in Swem Library’s microforms area on 1 reel of microfilm, call number E608 .V34 V36.
- Creation: 1854-1926
Language of Materials
Conditions Governing Access:
Collection is open to all researchers. Before publishing quotations or excerpts from any materials, permission must be obtained from the Special Collections Research Center, and the holder of the copyright, if not Swem Library. Manuscript collections and archival records may contain materials with sensitive or confidential information that is protected under federal or state right to privacy laws and regulations, such as the Virginia Public Records Act (Code of Virginia. § 42.1-76-91); and the Virginia Freedom of Information Act (Code of Virginia § 2.2-3705.5). Confidential material may include, but is not limited to, educational, medical, and personnel records. If sensitive material is found in this collection, please contact a staff member immediately. The disclosure of personally identifiable information pertaining to a living individual may have legal consequences for which the College of William and Mary assumes no responsibility.
Elizabeth Van Lew (1818-1900), also known as "Crazy Bet," was an American spy during the Civil War who spied for the Union from her home in Richmond, Virginia. Born in 1818 in Richmond, Van Lew's father ran a hardware business and owned several slaves. Van Lew was educated at a Quaker school in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, where she was first exposed to abolitionism. After the death of her father, Van Lew and her mother freed the family's eleven even though her father said they couldn't, the slaves included Mary Bowser. Then they bought and freed some of their relatives. Upon the outbreak of the war, Van Lew began working on behalf of the Union. When Libby Prison was opened in Richmond, Van Lew was allowed to bring food, clothing, writing paper, and other things to the Union soldiers imprisoned there. She aided prisoners in escape attempts, passing them information about safe houses and getting a Union sympathizer appointed to the prison. Prisoners gave Van Lew information on Confederate troop levels and movements, which she was able to pass on to Union commanders. Van Lew also operated a spy ring of 12 people during the war, including clerks in the war and navy departments of the Confederacy and a Richmond mayoral candidate. Van Lew was able to have Bowser hired by Varina Davis, which allowed Bowser to spy in the White House of the Confederacy. To aid in her spying, Van Lew adopted the appearance of a crazy person, letting her hair grow wild and talking to herself in public. Van Lew's spy network was so efficient that on several occasions she sent Ulysses S. Grant fresh flowers from her garden and a copy of the Richmond newspaper. She developed a cipher system and often smuggled messages out of Richmond in hollow eggs. Van Lew's work was valued by the United States. George H. Sharpe, intelligence officer for the Army of the Potomac, credited her with "the greater portion of our intelligence in 1864-65." On Grant's first visit to Richmond after the war, he took tea with Van Lew, and later appointed her postmaster of Richmond. Grant said of her "You have sent me the most valuable information received from Richmond during the war." After Reconstruction, Van Lew became increasingly ostracized in Richmond. She persuaded the United States Department of War to give her all of her records, so she could hide the true extent of her espionage from her neighbors. Having spent her family's fortune on intelligence activities during the war, she tried in vain to be reimbursed by the federal government. Van Lew died on September 25, 1900, and was buried in Richmond. Further information about this individual or organization may be available in the Special Collections Research Center Wiki:
0.60 Linear Feet
Physical Characteristics or Technical Requirements:
When available, microfilm, photocopies, digital surrogates, or other reproductions must be used in place of original documents.
Gift. Acc. 2000.54: Service copies and printmaster for microfilm of Elizabeth Van Lew Papers. Filmed by Preservation Resources.
Mss. Acc. 2000.54 Microfilm of Elizabeth Van Lew Papers transferred to Swem Microfilm Collection.
Reprocessed by Amana Katora in December 2011.
- Guide to the Elizabeth Van Lew Collection
- Finding Aid Authors: Special Collections Staff.
- Language of description
- Script of description
- Language of description note
- The collection description/finding aid is written in English